Water purification can be done on both small and large scales. In addition to individual homes, water filtering can also provide potable and clean water for industrial purposes.
Filtration reduces contaminants like suspended particles, parasites and bacteria.
Water filtration: Why it is so important
Water quality cannot be determined based on appearance alone. To test for contamination, multiple processes have been developed, including biological, chemical, and physical analyses. To determine the water quality and contamination levels, common parameters are organic and inorganic chemical levels.
Before tap water reaches its end user, it is often filtered in water purification facilities. Authorities test tap water quality before it is allowed to go into municipal feed lines. This usually produces results that are higher than the required standard. The age and length of the feedlines are not yet known.
It is not unusual for pipes to be more than a decade old. Filtered water can get polluted by everything it comes across as it travels through them. Old pipes can spread microorganisms and bacteria. This was evident in Flint, Michigan Crisis and Chicago with regard to lead pipe. The likelihood of being exposed to harmful contaminants rises if water isn’t filtered.
There is evidence to suggest that PFAS can cause adverse health effects in humans. According to the U.S. EPA, PFAS can build up in the body if they are consumed by animals or humans. The adverse health effects of PFAS exposure can include a weak immune system, cancer, and disruption of the thyroid hormones.
How do you choose a water filter?
The choice of water filtering process depends on factors like water quality, flow capacity requirements, government regulations, capital available and costs of operation and maintenance.
Common water filtration techniques
Granular Activated Carbon (GAC), Activated Carbon (GAC).
Adsorption is the key to activated carbon filtration. The porous carbon substrate traps water molecules. Activated charcoal filters are effective in removing sediment, chlorine, as well as volatile organic compounds (VOCs). However, carbon filtration is less effective in removing salts and minerals as well as dissolved organic compounds.
Two types of carbon filters are available for water filtering. They are the powdered block and granular activated carbon (GAC).
Carbon block filters have a higher adsorption surface, and some of them have more layers between the carbon to improve water filtration systems in perth. Some filters have silver layers which will prevent the growth of bacteria.
GAC filters are available in a variety of sizes. They use finer granulated coal that has a smaller area than the carbon block. This can create a channeling effect.
If the filter isn’t used for a while, bacteria colonies may grow within it.
Ion Exchange Filters & Deionization
Deionization (DI), is a chemical process that removes dissolved impurities from water. Ion exchange neutralizes ions by combining them with other ions. It is useful for very low impurities. Deionization can produce water of high purity and quality, but it is not effective against organic pollutants.
Beads with hydrogen ions or hydroxylions are used to deionize filters. They convert them into cations and anion ions. The filter releases hydrogen ions that replace the metals trapped in the beads when they come into contact with metallic ions. The anions in the water are then exchanged with hydroxyl ions. After that, the hydrogen and hydroxyl combine. The result is mineral-free water.
Water softening systems also work in the same way. They exchange the salt that is trapped in the beads for the magnesium and calcium. The water becomes softened by releasing salt while minerals remain trapped.
Water softening in industrial settings effectively reduces or eliminates scale buildup in boilers, valves, and other equipment. This can reduce costs and prolong the life of equipment and filters, which in turn will lower maintenance costs.
One of the easiest ways to filter water is by distillation. The water is heated and condensed steam is collected in a separate container. The original container is then emptied of all contaminants. Some contaminants can boil water before it reaches boiling point, so they are still in the second tank.
Multiple filters are used to remove contaminants in reverse osmosis. The first filter is usually a mechanical one. The second and third filters are typically made of carbon. The fourth and fifth filters are semi-permeable membranes.